Computed tomography (CT), originally known as computed axial tomography (CAT or
CT scan) and body section roentgenography, is a medical imaging method employing
tomography where digital geometry processing is used to generate a three dimensional
image of an object from a large series of two dimensional x-ray images taken around a
single axis of rotation.
The word “tomography” is derived from the Greek “tomos” (slice) and “graphein” (to
write). CT produces a volume of which can be manipulated, through a process known as
windowing, in order to demonstrate various structure based on the their ability to
attenuate x-ray beam.
It is a medical imaging procedure that utilizes computer-processed X-rays to produce
tomographic images or ‘slices’ of specific areas of the body. These cross-sectional images
are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines. Digital
geometry processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an
object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of
rotation. CT produces a volume of data that can be manipulated, through a process known
as “windowing”, in order to demonstrate various bodily structures based on their ability to
block the X-ray beam. Although historically the images generated were in the axial or
transverse plane, perpendicular to the long axis of the body, modern scanners allow this
volume of data to be reformatted in various planes or even as volumetric (3D)
representations of structures. Although most common in medicine, CT is also used in
other fields, such as nondestructive materials testing. Another example is archaeological
uses such as imaging the contents of sarcophagi.