INTRODUCTION William Glasser′s reality therapy is important and essential for several reasons. First, this approach (as does Ellis′s rational–emotive therapy) provides a good contrast to most of the other counseling approaches explored in this book. Second, reality therapy has gained popularity among school counselors, elementary and secondary teachers and principals, and rehabilitation workers. Third, it presents many of the basic issues in counseling that underlie such questions like What is reality? Should a therapist teach his or her patients? What should be taught? What model should the therapist provide? Whose philosophy should be taught? What is the role of values in counseling? As you read this chapter keep these questions in mind and compare reality therapy with the other therapeutic approaches you have studied. Reality therapy is a system that focuses on present behavior. The therapist functions as a teacher and a model and confronts the client in ways that help the client face reality and fulfill basic needs without harming himself or herself or others. The heart of reality therapy is acceptance of personal responsibility, which is equated with mental health. Glasser developed this therapy from his conviction that conventional psychiatry is based largely on mistaken assumptions. Reality therapy, which describes principles and procedures designed to help people achieve a “success identity,” is applicable to psychotherapy, counseling, teaching, group work, marriage counseling, institutional management, and community development. Reality therapy is a form of behavior modification, for, particularly in its institutional applications, it is essentially a type of nonrigorous operant conditioning. In my opinion, one reason for Glasser′s popularity is that he has succeeded in translating some concepts of behavior modification into a relatively simple and straightforward model of practice. KEY CONCEPT Reality therapy is based on the premise that there is a single psychological need that is present throughout life: the need for identity, which includes a need to feel a sense of uniqueness, separateness, and distinctiveness. The need for identity, which accounts for the dynamics of behavior, is seen as universal among all cultures.