STEM CELLS IN DENTISTRY

by VIBHUTI KAULRUDRA KAUL
₹ 300
ISBN Number : 978 - 1- 73039 - 864 - 3

VIBHUTI KAUL

BDS (IGGDC Jammu) MDS Oral Medicine and Radiology (GDC Srinagar) FAGE (Manipal)


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RUDRA KAUL

BDS (GDC Mumbai) MDS Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics (GDC Srinagar) FAGE (Manipal)


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Book Overview

The quest to live a long and healthy life is as old as the appearance of the first cell on earth. This cell replicated, multiplied, sustained and slowly developed into a very complex system called as the human body. Still, cell is the basic unit of life. Life originates from a single cell called as an ova, which after fertilization undergoes various stages of morula, blastula, zygote and finally giving rise to an embryo which further undergoes organogenesis to form various tissues and organ systems of a living body. Our body consists of mainly two kinds of cells; the ones which when damaged or lost cannot undergo the process of repair or regeneration. Any damage to these cells, either due to aging or injury may pose a threat to the whole system and thus has long been a concern to the mankind. On the contrary, it has also been observed that several tissues in the body (such as blood, skin, and gastrointestinal tract) undergo rapid renewal, and have regenerative ability .This observation lead the scientists to hypothesize that the tissues with the regenerative potential may contain cells that initiate their replacement. The unique cells that give rise to specialized tissues are termed stem cells. Stem cells are extraordinary cells that have the capacity for self–renewal and can give rise to one and sometimes many different cell types.1 Stem cells are thus, the pioneer of regenerative medicine. 2 The emergence of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine shed new light on treatment of patients with degenerative disorders.3 Ever since this realization, researchers as well as doctors have been working in this direction, hoping to make use of the concept of regeneration in the field of medicine and health. Stem cells are cells with the capacity for unlimited or prolonged self–renewal that can produce at least one type of highly differentiated descendant.4 Stem cells have now also been introduced to the field of dentistry to treat various orofacial problems, which have high impact not only on the facial appearance, but also on quality of life– specifically on the ability to chew, a function that is easily taken for granted until lost. A number of researchers have reported the isolation of stem cells from the pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (Miura et al, 2003)5 and/or from the periodontal ligament (PDL). According to Gronthos et al (2002)6, dental pulp cells were shown to form dentinpulp– like complex when transplanted in vivo. The cells derived from PDL formed cementum and a PDL– like structure. Bone marrow stem cells used in conjunction with hydroxyapatite and tri– calcium phosphate have been successful in alveolar bone building, in animal models.